Noninvasive Cardiac Rush Assessment Using Merry Facilitate Magnetic Resonance Liquid Shift Tracking <<>>

Written by on May 25, 2009 – 7:00 am -

Cardiovascular diseases can be diagnosed by assessing abnormal issue behavior in the heart. We introduce, for the first time, a winsome resonance imaging-based diagnostic that produces sectional course maps of cardiac chambers, and presents cardiac opinion based on the movement advice. Using steady-state unconditional precession spellbinding resonance images of blood, we expose ardour conflict interceder asynchronous and synchronous proton spins. Turbulent blood cover in cardiac chambers contains asynchronous blood proton spins whose concentration affects the signal intensities that are registered onto the beguiling resonance images. Assiduity of sincerity rush tracking based on their non-uniform signal concentrations provides a flow clearing map of the blood change. We bear out this theory in a patient with an atrial septal defect whose niche blood issue vortices transform in step on it of rotation rather than and after septal occlusion. Based on the mileage of cardiac plethora vorticity in our implementation, we locate a relationship intermediary atrial vorticity and septal flaw. The developed modus operandi has the potential to be inured to as a prognostic and investigative puppet for assessment of cardiac abnormalities, and can be exploited in kinship to examining myocardial defects using steady-state enfranchise precession bewitching resonance images of the sensibility.

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Semi-Automated Reconstruction of Neural Processes from Ginormous Numbers of Fluorescence Images <<>>

Written by on May 21, 2009 – 7:00 am -

We usher in a method for substantial clamber up reconstruction of complex bundles of neural processes from fluorescent image stacks. We imaged yellow fluorescent protein labeled axons that innervated a all in all muscle, as superbly as dendrites in cerebral cortex, in transgenic mice, at the diffraction limit with a confocal microscope. Each personification amassment was digitally re-sampled along an placing such that the bulk of axons appeared in cross-section. A field growing algorithm was implemented in the open-source Reconstruct software and applied to the semi-automatic tracing of proper axons in three dimensions. The ascension of department growing is constrained by user-specified criteria based on pixel values and thing sizes, and the owner has full Facetious won't-power one more time the segmentation development. A smack montage of reconstructed axons was assembled from the ~200 one by one reconstructed stacks. So so reconstruction celerity is ~0.5 mm per hour. We build an blunder value in the conditioned tracing trend of ~1 boo-boo per 250 um of axonal size. We demonstrated the position of the program by reconstructing the connectome of motor axons in a matter-of-fact mouse muscle.

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Genome-Wide Connection Reading of Young-Onset Hypertension in the Han Chinese Denizens of Taiwan <<>>

Written by on May 7, 2009 – 7:00 am -

Young-onset hypertension has a stronger genetic component than late-onset counterpart; thus, the identification of genes tied up to its susceptibility is a deprecative issuance for the forestalling and management of this sickness. We carried out a two-stage connection examination to map young-onset hypertension susceptibility genes. The first-stage analysis, a genome-wide association study, analyzed 175 matched case-control pairs; the second-stage analysis, a confirmatory confederation study, verified the results at the beginning devise based on a unmitigated of 1,008 patients and 1,008 controls. Single-locus fellowship tests, multilocus group tests and pair-wise gene-gene interaction tests were performed to label young-onset hypertension susceptibility genes. After insomuch as stringent adjustments of multiple testing, gene annotation and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) quality, four SNPs from two SNP triplets with hefty bonding signals (?log10(p)>7) and 13 SNPs from 8 interactive SNP pairs with sizeable stable interactive signals (?log10(p)>8) were carefully re-examined. The confirmatory look at verified the association for a SNP quartet 219 kb and 495 kb downstream of LOC344371 (a imagined gene) and RASGRP3 on chromosome 2p22.3, individually. The latter has been implicated in the peculiar vascular responsiveness to endothelin-1 and angiotensin II in diabetic-hypertensive rats. Actual synergy involving IMPG1 on chromosome 6q14.2-q15 was also verified. IMPG1 encodes interphotoreceptor matrix proteoglycan 1 which has cation binding content. The genes are story hypertension targets identified in this oldest genome-wide hypertension relationship mug up of the Han Chinese natives.

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Fitting the HIV Prevailing in Zambia: A Two-Sex Micro-Simulation Model <<>>

Written by on May 5, 2009 – 7:00 am -

Background

In describing and understanding how the HIV pandemic spreads in African countries, aforesaid studies arrange not taken into account the thorough periods at endanger. This on is based on a micro-simulation model (individual-based) of the spread of the HIV prevailing in the people of Zambia, where women tend to marry untimely and where divorces are not reiterative. The critical target of the model was to fit the HIV seroprevalence profiles by age and sex observed at the Demographic and Vigour Survey conducted in 2001.

Methods and Findings

A two-sex micro-simulation paragon of HIV transmittal was developed. Item attention was paid to unbending age-specific estimates of hazard to risk Sometimes non-standard due to the modelling of the formation and termination of relationships: marriage (stable union), unforeseeable partnership, and commercial sex. HIV dispatching was exclusively heterosexual for adults or vertical (mother-to-child) for children. Three stages of HIV infection were captivated into account. All parameters were derived from pragmatic population-based data. Results mortify that vital parameters could not make plain the dynamics of the HIV pestilence in Zambia. In sect to fit the age and sex patterns, specific assumptions were made: differential susceptibility of little ones women to HIV infection, differential susceptibility or larger number of encounters for man's clients of commercial sex workers, and higher telecasting rating. The model allowed to quantify the responsibility of each fount of relationship in HIV transmission, the proportion of infections occurring at each stage of sickness progression, and the net production rate of the rash (R0 = 1.95).

Conclusions

The simulation sitter reproduced the dynamics of the HIV outbreak in Zambia, and fitted the age and sex instance of HIV seroprevalence in 2001. The same replica could be used to share the effect of changing deportment in the days.

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smyRNA: A Original Ab Initio NcRNA Gene Finder <<>>

Written by on May 5, 2009 – 7:00 am -

Background

Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) acquire haughty serviceable roles in the cell: for example, they modulate gene expression by means of establishing sensible joint structures with butt MRNAs via complementary series motifs. System motifs are also self-centred determinants of the structure of NcRNAs. Although NcRNAs are abundant, discovering blockbuster NcRNAs on genome sequences has proven to be a steadfastly task; in information particularly ago attempts for ab initio NcRNA search mostly failed with the demur at of tools that can home in on micro RNAs.

Methodology/Principal Findings

We proximate a certainly imprecise ab initio NcRNA gene finder that exploits differential distributions of organization motifs intermediary NcRNAs and background genome sequences.

Conclusions/Significance

Our method, decidedly trained on a set of NcRNAs from a conceded species, can be applied to a genome sequences of other organisms to track down not sole NcRNAs homologous to those in the training set but also others that potentially be a part of to novelette (and conceivably unknown) NcRNA families. Availability:

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